Committee on Financial Services

Jeb Hensarling

Chairman Hensarling: Ex-Im Doesn’t Level the Playing Field; Ex-Im Rigs It in Favor of Powerful Corporations


Financial Services Committee Chairman Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) issued the following statement today regarding President Obama’s comments about the Export-Import Bank:

“President Obama was right in 2008 when he called the Export-Import Bank ‘little more than a fund for corporate welfare’ and wrong today when he cheerleads for its renewal.

“We need to level the playing field so American manufacturers and small businesses can compete. But Ex-Im doesn’t level the playing field; Ex-Im rigs it in favor of few powerful Fortune 500 corporations that are the overwhelming beneficiaries of Ex-Im. Washington shouldn’t pick winners and losers, and hardworking American taxpayers – who are already under tremendous stress – shouldn’t be forced to pay for foreign corporate welfare that advantages a handful of powerful, politically-connected corporations.

“Because over 98 percent of all U.S. exports are funded without Ex-Im, no one can make a credible case that Ex-Im’s continuation is critical to our economy. What would really help American manufacturers and small businesses compete on a level playing field are pro-growth tax, energy, regulatory and liability policies that the House has already passed but are being blocked by Democrats in the Senate. These policies are also embodied in legislation introduced by my colleague Congressman Mick Mulvaney. I’ve co-sponsored his bill, the American Renaissance in Manufacturing Act (the ARM Act) to begin addressing the competitive disadvantages our American manufacturers face. The pro-growth policies in the ARM Act, not the crony-connected political privileges of Ex-Im, will really level the playing field and help America compete.

“I urge President Obama to join us in helping to make American exporters more competitive through greater opportunity, not more foreign corporate welfare.”


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ICYMI: How Much of a Terrorist Attack Should Insurance Companies Cover?



August 21, 2014


Should the government help pay for Americans to rebuild after big terrorist attacks? If so, how much? Congress is in the process of answering these questions.

Since 2002, the federal government has provided a financial backstop for private terrorism insurance policies, promising public money to offset losses after large, expensive attacks. After $100 million in losses, the federal cost-sharing program is designed to kick in. Thankfully, the backstop hasn’t been necessary so far. But the policy is about to expire, and lawmakers must decide what to do with it before the end of the year.
The Senate passed a bill last month that would extend the current system for seven years with a few tweaks but no major changes. The vote in that chamber was 93 to 4. In the House, however, the debate is roiling, with Republicans deeply split about what to do. Some don’t want to see federal money put on the line to help developers in major terrorism targets — read, cities — obtain affordable insurance for big building projects, which has been a primary effect of the policy to date. Others — particularly those who represent districts that contain possible terrorist targets — would take the Senate’s status quo approach. The man at the center of this fight, Financial Services Committee Chairman Jeb Hensarling (R-Tex.), has proposed a bill that would keep the system in place for five years but, among other things, raise the point at which the federal government would step in to $500 million in losses.
It certainly makes sense for the government to provide some guarantee of help following a catastrophic attack. Congress would no doubt approve assistance after a big terrorist strike, anyway. It’s better to have a system with certain boundaries and rules in place before that happens. This makes even more sense when one considers that the government has a lot of control over — and responsibility for — protecting the homeland from catastrophic attacks. It has more influence in that realm of national tragedy than it has on the timing, location or severity of other disasters that elicit federal funds — hurricanes, tornadoes, floods or earthquakes, say.
But there is a legitimate debate to be had about what qualifies as a disaster big enough that the whole nation should bear some or most of the private rebuilding costs. It is neither unreasonable nor heartless for the House to wonder whether the Senate is promising too much assistance, when the private insurance market may be able to handle losses beyond its $100 million threshold on its own. Raising the bar might have negative consequences for the cost of constructing and operating large buildings in various places around the country, insurance on which would probably become more expensive or difficult to obtain. But it is only fair to ask those who use and benefit from those facilities to help pay something closer to their true cost.
The House should renew the policy, but it is right to explore more ambitious changes than those the Senate approved.


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ICYMI: Ex-Im Busts Its Travel Budget While Undertaking “Barnstorming” Pro-Subsidy Tour


Officials with the Export-Import Bank have embarked on a 10-state promotional tour this month.

And according to The Hill, “Officials with the Export-Import Bank have exceeded their travel budget over the last three years by $3 million.” (“Ex-Im Busts Travel Budget by $3M” the headline reads).  “Much of the recent travel appears designed to build public support for the bank,” The Hill reports.

Being the chief export subsidizer in the country carries lots of responsibilities including, apparently, barnstorming the country to try and rally the businesses you subsidize to push lawmakers to keep the subsidies flowing. This ain't cheap,” notes the Washington Examiner.


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Egregious Ex-Im Bank Deal of the Day


e•gre•gious -- outstandingly bad; shocking.

“While You’re Away on Vacation…”

Before President Obama leaves tomorrow for his Martha’s Vineyard vacation, we have a suggested day-trip he could make when he gets bored after his umpteenth round of golf and the inevitable campaign fundraiser: he could visit the millions of taxpayer dollars “invested” by the Export-Import Bank into Evergreen Solar between 2009-2010.

It’s just a 3-hour drive from Martha’s Vineyard (even quicker with Air Force One!).

Oh, wait.  Nope.  Never mind.  He CAN’T visit Evergreen Solar.

  • In 2011, the company filed for bankruptcy, packed up and moved production to China – laying off 800 workers.

Note to White House advance staff:  Please don’t confuse Evergreen Solar with Solyndra, another failed “green energy” company that received Ex-Im’s corporate welfare.  That’s in one of the other 57 states.


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Chairman Hensarling Statement on Obama’s Cheerleading for Ex-Im Reauthorization


House Financial Services Committee Chairman Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) issued the following statement in reaction to President Obama’s call for Congress to reauthorize the Export-Import Bank:

“Today, President Obama was cheerleading for the Export-Import Bank, which he once cheered against as a candidate when he called the Bank ‘little more than a fund for corporate welfare.’  Given that we learned this week that the Export-Import Bank is connected to 40 different ongoing fraud investigations, it’s a very odd time for the president to be cheering for them.

“Because over 98 percent of all U.S. exports are funded without the Export-Import Bank, no one can make a credible case that its reauthorization is critical to the economy.  What would really rejuvenate the economy is a repeal of Obamanomics.  Whether it is the president’s health care law, Dodd-Frank, or the wasteful ‘stimulus’ package, the fact is our nation remains in the longest, slowest, weakest, non-recovery recovery in our history because of the president’s failed economic policies.   

“American manufacturers compete in the global marketplace at a competitive disadvantage right now largely due to our high corporate tax rate, legal liability costs, and burdensome regulations.   If President Obama was really interested in leveling the playing field for American manufacturers, he would work with Republicans in Congress on pro-growth tax, energy, regulatory, and liability policies -- not some international arms race to the bottom funded with taxpayer subsidies for his friends at Fortune 500 companies.  Congressman Mick Mulvaney (R-SC) recently introduced H.R. 5360, the American Renaissance in Manufacturing Act (ARM Act), which I have co-sponsored, to begin to address the competitive disadvantages our American manufacturers face.  The pro-growth policies in the ARM Act, not the crony-connected Export-Import Bank, are a real solution to the problem.

“I urge the president to join us in helping to make our exporters more competitive through greater opportunity, not greater taxpayer subsidies or guarantees.”


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Egregious Ex-Im Bank Deal of the Day


e·gre·gious -- outstandingly bad; shocking.


“A Wealth of Political Connections” Connects Troubled Foreign Company to U.S. Taxpayers


What do U.S. taxpayers, former Vice President Al Gore and former Gov. Bill Richardson have in common?

Not long ago, Ex-Im’s taxpayer-backed loans for Abengoa were featured as an Egregious Ex-Im Deal of the Day.  Today, the company (and Ex-Im’s ties to it) are back in the news…and not in a good way.

We’ll let the Washington Free Beacon take it from here in its report:  “Former Employees Allege Widespread Illegality at Taxpayer-Backed Solar Company”.

  • “A solar company backed by billions in stimulus funds routinely violated U.S. immigration law, workplace safety codes, and environmental regulations, replaced American workers with foreigners, and may be on the verge of bankruptcy…

  • “In addition to its two DOE loan guarantees, Abengoa is the beneficiary of significant support from the U.S. Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im), which finances the purchases of U.S. exports by foreign governments and corporations.”
  • “Ex-Im approved two loans totaling more than $33 million for the company last year. The financing supported the use of American-made goods by Abengoa subsidiaries in Spain and South Africa.  The year before, Ex-Im awarded the company an additional $152 million in taxpayer-backed loans.”
  • “Observers noted that Abengoa and Ex-Im shared a board member at the time: New Mexico’s former Gov. Bill Richardson (D.). It was one of a litany of political connections that Alhalabi says have paid dividends for the company.”
  • “Behind the scenes, what brought Abengoa to the United States, based on my research, [was] Al Gore,” Alhalabi said. “He promised to bring U.S. dollars to the company.”
  • “The former vice president, whose anti-fossil fuel activism frequently dovetails with his green energy investments, bought a stake in the company in 2007 through his firm, Generation Investment Management (GIM).”



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FSC Majority | Week in Review


Committee Passes Federal Reserve Accountability and Bipartisan Regulatory Relief Bills

On Wednesday the Full Committee passed 6 bills to provide transparency and accountability at the Federal Reserve, regulatory relief for the economy, and re-authorize the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act.

The Federal Reserve Accountability and Transparency Act (H.R. 5018) is legislation developed as part of the Committee’s Federal Reserve Centennial Oversight Project launched at the end of last year. Under the bill, the Fed would adopt a more predictable rules-based policy -- of the Fed’s own choosing -- that leads to a healthier and stronger economy. The bill also requires the Fed to share with the public whatever rules-based approach it chooses to adopt. Additionally, H.R. 5018 requires the Fed to conduct a cost-benefit analysis in order to ensure that the benefits of proposed regulations outweigh the costs to the economy.

“The overwhelming weight of evidence is that monetary policy is at its best in maintaining stable prices and maximum employment when it follows a clear, predictable monetary policy rule,” said Financial Services Committee Chairman Jeb Hensarling (R-TX). “This legislation is about accountability and about transparency. It’s not about theory because history shows that when the Fed lets job creators, entrepreneurs, small business people and everyone else know how monetary policy will be conducted, the economy performs better and more people get to go to work.”

Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises Subcommittee Chairman Scott Garrett (R-NJ), a co-author of the bill, said H.R. 5018 takes “important steps toward establishing a more appropriate level of transparency at the Fed. As things stand now, the Fed’s regulatory activities take place behind a fraternity-like veil of secrecy, obstructing openness, and preventing proper accountability. And when it comes to monetary policy, like the Wizard of Oz, it’s time we bring the Fed out from behind the curtain.”

Rep. Bill Huizenga (R-MI), also a co-author of the bill, said H.R. 5018 will lift “the veil of secrecy surrounding the Fed by making it more open and transparent.”

In addition to H.R. 5018, the Committee also marked up four more pro-jobs bills that are designed to provide the economy with relief from Washington red tape.
"So far the committee has passed 38 different regulatory relief bills that will hopefully lead to smarter regulation and greater economic growth. Twenty of them have passed the House, many with bipartisan support. We hope to add at least five more to that list today. We look forward to the Senate actually doing anything, but we would particularly look forward to the Senate taking up some of this legislation,"
said​ Chairman Hensarling.

"Again, job number one will continue to be the creation of jobs and economic growth in this committee. These bills are designed to ensure just that," added Chairman Hensarling.

Subcommittee Investigates Discrimination and Retaliation at the CFPB

The Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee on Wednesday held a hearing to question CFPB Director Richard Cordray about allegations of discrimination and retaliation at the CFPB. Over the past several months, the Subcommittee has heard shocking testimony from whistleblowers, Bureau officials and an independent investigator on what has been described as a "hostile working environment" and "culture of intimidation and retaliation" at the CFPB.

"People are suffering and feel unprotected at their place of work and we've heard from them. [CFPB] managers have been given unequivocal free reign resulting in a toxic management culture that lacks accountability and trust. Employees fear speaking out and fear asserting their rights lest they suffer reprisals and retaliations. This must change," said Subcommittee Chairman Patrick McHenry (R-NC).

"The problems are much larger than some modifications to a performance management system. The problem is a CFPB management culture that condones intimidation, discrimination, and retaliation. And if the director has failed to reprimand and remove bad managers, then the problem is also his leadership or lack thereof," said Chairman McHenry.

Chairman McHenry also announced at the hearing that the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has agreed to probe the CFPB’s management practices and organizational culture. The GAO review was requested by Chairman Hensarling, Chairman McHenry and Chairman Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV) of the Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Subcommittee.


Rep. Bill Huizenga | Santelli Exchange: Fed reform

Rep. Huizenga and CNBC's Rick Santelli discuss the Federal Reserve Accountability and Transparency Act.

Weekend Must Reads

Washington Examiner | The Export-Import Bank socializes risk for private benefit

You might wonder why lawmakers would refuse to acknowledge this reality. For one, politicians are pressured by an army of lobbyists representing powerful companies who are committed to protect their perks even if it hurts everyone else. But politicians are not exactly shrinking violets, here. They like being able to point to the small businesses and American jobs that they “support” through the Ex-Im Bank. What is much harder is to point to the millions of victims of the Ex-Im Bank. Taxpayers, for instance, bear a massive $140 billion exposure so that giant corporations like Boeing and General Electric can make a little more profit each year. Should the bank’s portfolio go south, normal people like you and I will be on the hook.

The Hill
| Dodd-Frank doesn’t end ‘too big to fail’

Dodd-Frank's Orderly Resolution plans do not end "too big to fail." The recent House Financial Services Committee Republican report discusses the flaws in these plans. Orderly Resolution plans have been compared to pre-packaged bankruptcies, or blueprints for speedy reorganizations using bankruptcy that will keep financial institutions open and operating and thereby remove the risk of financial instability. On close examination, this analogy breaks down because these plans lack creditor participation. The key to a successful prepackaged bankruptcy is creditor acceptance of a debt restructuring plan before entering bankruptcy. But creditors do not approve Orderly Resolution plans. The plans are kept secret from creditors, and the institutions filing the plans are not even obligated to follow them in bankruptcy.

Wall Street Journal | Liberals Love the 'One Percent'

Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen has said the central bank's goal is "to help Main Street not Wall Street," and many liberal commentators seem convinced that she is advancing that goal. But talk to anyone on Wall Street. If they are being frank, they'll admit that the Fed's loose monetary policy has been one of the biggest contributors to their returns over the past five years. Unwittingly, it seems, liberals who support the Fed are defending policies that boost the wealth of the wealthy but do nothing to reduce inequality.

Wall Street Journal The Danger of Too Loose, Too Long

The Fed has been running a hyper-accommodative monetary policy to lift the economy out of the doldrums and counteract a possible deflationary spiral. Much of what we have paid out to purchase Treasurys and mortgage-backed securities has been put back to the Fed in the form of excess reserves deposited at the Federal Reserve banks. As of July 9, $2.517 trillion of excess reserves were parked on the 12 Fed banks' balance sheets, while depository institutions wait to find eager and worthy borrowers to lend to.

   In the News

The Hill Ex-Im Bank Suspends Deals with Russia

Bloomberg |
House Passes Financial Regulatory Bills; Measures Would Protect Data Confidentiality

Washington Examiner | CFPB opens new investigation in bid to exonerate bureau managers on discrimination

Times Record News | Neugebauer wants to get government out of terror insurance

Wall Street Journal | House Panel Passes Bill to Ease Capital Requirements on MSRs

Real Clear Markets | Dodd-Frank's Birthday Marred By Its Many Inadequacies

American Banker | House Panel Passes Bill to Ease Capital Requirements on MSRs

Wall Street Journal | Regional Banks Push Congress to Amend 'Systemically Important' Tag

Washington Examiner | GAO opens new probe of CFPB 'toxic workplace' charges

Wall Street Journal | Republicans Demand Consumer Regulator’s Documents in Wake of Supreme Court Case

Washington Times | ‘Operation Choke Point’: A noose for business

Bloomberg | Ex-Im Bank Watchdog Pursuing 40 Fraud Cases: Lawmaker

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Egregious Ex-Im Bank Deal of the Day


e·gre·gious -- outstandingly bad; shocking.

Did an Ex-Im Project Lead to 27 Deaths?

The Export-Import Bank’s approval of $3 billion in financing for a liquefied natural gas project in Papua New Guinea reportedly led to the deaths of 27 villagers who were killed on January 24, 2012 in a massive landslide. 

  • Three environmental and development groups – Pacific Environment, Jubilee Australia and the International Accountability Project – warned Ex-Im about the project’s “several environmental, social and human rights impacts” before and after the Bank approved the $3 billion loan.
  • One report said a supply road was quickly reconstructed over the landslide -- directly over the buried bodies.


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Financial Services Committee Passes Several Bipartisan Regulatory Relief Bills and Federal Reserve Oversight Legislation


As part of its ongoing efforts to strengthen the economy and hold Washington accountable, the Financial Services Committee today passed several bipartisan regulatory relief bills and legislation to make the Federal Reserve more accountable and transparent.  The committee also approved a five-year reauthorization of the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act (NAHASDA).  

“With millions of our fellow Americans unemployed and underemployed, job number one continues to be jobs creation and economic growth.  Our committee has approved dozens of bipartisan bills- several of which are piled up on Harry Reid’s desk-  to help alleviate the red tape burden that Washington piles on job creators so all Americans can enjoy a stronger, healthier economy,” said Chairman Jeb Hensarling (R-TX).

The following is a summary of the bills the committee passed:

H.R. 5018, the Federal Reserve Accountability and Transparency Act, sponsored by Rep. Scott Garrett (R-NJ) and Rep. Bill Huizenga (R-MI). H.R. 5018 was approved 32-26.

H.R. 5018 is the first piece of legislation developed as part of the Committee’s Federal Reserve Centennial Oversight Project. It requires the Federal Reserve to adopt a more predictable rules-based policy -- of the Fed’s own choosing -- that leads to a healthy and stronger economy.  It also requires the Fed to share with the public whatever rules-based approach it decides to follow.  The bill also requires the Federal Reserve to conduct a cost-benefit analysis when adopting new regulations in order to ensure the benefits of proposed regulations outweigh the cost to the economy.

H.R. 3240, the Regulation D Study Act, introduced by Rep. Robert Pittenger (R-NC). H.R. 3240 was approved by voice vote.

H.R. 3240 requires the Government Accountability Office, in consultation with credit unions and community banks, to conduct a study examining Federal Reserve Regulation D minimum reserve requirements.  Regulation D forces financial institutions to focus on compliance rather than spending time with consumers to meet their financial needs.

H.R. 3913, a bill to amend the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 to require agencies to take into account the promotion of efficiency, competition, and capital formation before issuing or modifying certain regulations, sponsored by Rep. Sean Dufy (R-WI). H.R. 3913 was approved 32-22.

H.R. 3913 is based on the common-sense proposition that before any rule can be proposed, a federal agency must determine if the rule promotes efficiency, competition, and capital formation.  Instead of forcing financial institutions to spend precious time and money complying with unnecessary bureaucratic red tape, Congress can allow them to focus on encouraging economic growth by providing consumers with financial products and services.

H.R. 4042, the Community Bank Mortgage Servicing Asset Capital Requirements Study Act of 2014, sponsored by Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-MO). H.R. 4042, as amended, was approved 44-9.

H.R. 4202 requires the Federal Reserve, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to conduct a study to determine the appropriate capital requirements for mortgage servicing assets for any banking institution other than an institution identified by the Financial Stability Board as a global systemically important bank. H.R. 4042, as amended, also prohibits the implementation of Basel III capital requirements related to mortgage servicing assets for non-systemic banking institutions from taking effect until three months after a report on the study mandated by the bill is transmitted to Congress.

H.R. 5148, the Access to Affordable Mortgages Act of 2014, sponsored by Rep. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-MO). H.R. 5148 was approved 31-23.

H.R. 5148 would amend federal law to exempt creditors offering mortgages of $250,000 or below from onerous property appraisal requirements stemming from the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (P.L. 11-203).

H.R. 4329, the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act (NAHASDA) of 2014, sponsored by Rep. Steve Pearce (R-NM). H.R. 4329 was approved 47-11.

H.R. 4329 extends the authorization for NAHASDA for five additional years with the following reforms:

  • Strengthens vital taxpayer protections and tribal accountability by giving the HUD Secretary the authority to recoup unexpended funds.
  • Allows for tribes to pursue alternative funding sources by encouraging private investment.
  • Provides Native Americans tribes with greater efficiencies when deploying NAHASDA funds. 


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GAO to Examine CFPB Culture, Management Practices in Light of Allegations


The Government Accountability Office will look into the CFPB’s organizational culture and management practices in light of allegations that Bureau managers are discriminating against employees based on race and gender and retaliating against employees who complain, Rep. Patrick McHenry (R-NC) announced at a hearing today.

Rep. McHenry, who chairs the Financial Services Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, announced that the GAO had agreed to conduct the review during a hearing with CFPB Director Richard Cordray.  The hearing was the Subcommittee’s fourth since the beginning of April about allegations of employment discrimination and retaliation at the CFPB.
“Since the Subcommittee opened its investigation into allegations of discrimination and retaliation at the CFPB, no fewer than 32 employees have come forward about their maltreatment.  These 32 brave leaders have come forward to do what is right: to protect their colleagues who suffer, and they have stood up even in the face of retribution from their managers if they are found out,” said Chairman McHenry.  “Shortly, all CFPB employees will have an opportunity to confidentially share all of their concerns with the Government Accountability Office.”
The GAO investigation was requested by Chairman McHenry as well as Financial Services Committee Chairman Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) and Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Subcommittee Chairman Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV).
“The problem is a CFPB management culture that condones intimidation, discrimination, and retaliation.  And if the Director has failed to reprimand and remove bad managers, then the problem is also his leadership – or lack thereof,” said Chairman McHenry.
To read witness testimony and watch previous Subcommittee hearings looking into these allegations, click here, here and here.


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Continuation of Markup of H.R. 5018, H.R. 4329, H.R. 3240, H.R. 3913, H.R. 4042, and H.R. 5148


Hearing entitled “Allegations of Discrimination and Retaliation and the CFPB Management Culture”


Markup of H.R. 5018, the Federal Reserve Accountability and Transparency Act of 2014; H.R. 4329, the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Reauthorization Act of 2014; H.R. 3240, the Regulation D Study Act; H.R. 3913, to amend the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 to require agencies to make considerations relating to the promotion of efficiency, competition, and capital formation before issuing or modifying certain regulations; H.R. 4042, the Community Bank Mortgage Service Asset Capital Requirements Study Act of 2014; and H.R. 5148, the Access to Affordable Mortgages Act of 2014


Hearing entitled “Oversight of the SEC’s Division of Corporation Finance”


Hearing entitled “Assessing the Impact of the Dodd-Frank Act Four Years Later”


Hearing entitled “A Legislative Proposal Entitled the ‘Bank Account Seizure of Terrorist Assets (BASTA) Act’”


Hearing entitled “Monetary Policy and the State of the Economy”


Hearing entitled “Examining Regulatory Relief Proposals for Community Financial Institutions, Part II”


Hearing entitled “The Department of Justice’s ‘Operation Choke Point’”


Hearing entitled “Legislation to Reform the Federal Reserve on Its 100-year Anniversary”


There is no media available for this committee.

Contact Information

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Michele Bachmann


Spencer Bachus


Andy Barr


John Campbell


Shelley Capito


Tom Cotton


Sean Duffy


Stephen Fincher


Mike Fitzpatrick


Scott Garrett


Michael Grimm


Jeb Hensarling


Bill Huizenga


Randy Hultgren


Robert Hurt


Peter King


Frank Lucas


Blaine Luetkemeyer


Kevin McCarthy


Patrick McHenry


Gary Miller


Mick Mulvaney


Randy Neugebauer


Steve Pearce


Robert Pittenger


Bill Posey


Dennis Ross


Keith Rothfus


Ed Royce


Steve Stivers


Marlin Stutzman


Ann Wagner


Lynn Westmoreland